Home is more than a structure…

Reflecting on his life in Springfield, President-elect Abraham Lincoln departed for his trip to Washington D. C. with
bittersweet notes,

“To this place, and the kindness of these people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter of a century, and have passed from a young to an old man. Here my children have been born, and one is buried.”

In this simple and eloquent statement, Lincoln exposed a profound understanding that home is more than a structure. It is a sense of self, shaped by the land and the community. Lincoln recognized that his experiences of life in Springfield and Illinois would influence the path he was about to lead during one of our nation’s most challenging periods.

For centuries the land that has become Illinois has been home. Here our region’s earliest indigenous residents built powerful, lasting communities. And for generations afterward, though immigration, migration, and settler colonialism, Illinoisans have changed the world
. . . by starting at home.

Through their stories and objects, we invite you to explore our shared roots and what it means to truly find a place of belonging.

Finding Home

We all seek a place to call home. Here, Illinoisans struggle to find ideal homes, and this struggle becomes a fundamental part of their identities.

Ronald Reagan

Reagan Defines Home

Home was an elusive concept for young Ronald Reagan. The only president born in Illinois, his childhood was marked by continual displacement. As his father sought work, Reagan’s family changed homes an astounding 7 times in 5 years—moving from Tampico to Chicago to Galesburg to Monmouth and back to Tampico, before finally finding stability in Dixon.

White suburban Dixon became Reagan’s ideal home. He immersed himself in community life and his gregarious personality made him a popular resident. In high school and later at Eureka College, Reagan dove into extracurriculars, becoming captain of his football team and working as a community lifeguard. This idyllic, aspirational image of a white, middle-class life shaped his view of America and future politics. Reagan later called small town Illinois “a small universe where I learned standards and values that would guide me for the rest of my life.”

Family Photo

Ronald Reagan with his older brother, his father and his mother.

Reagan the Lifeguard

Photo from 1927 when Regan served as a lifeguard on the Rock River in Dixon, IL

The Gipper

Ronald Reagan as American football player George Gipp 'The Gipper' in a publicity portrait from 'Knute Rockne All American' 1940

Ronald Reagan's Sweater

Reagan's letterman sweater from Eureka College

Courtesy Eureka College

Ronald Reagan's College Yearbook

Reagan's college 1921 yearbook from Eureka College

Courtesy Eureka College

Joseph Jordan

Pullman, a Home for Workers

Joseph Jordan decided to leave behind the violent racism of the Jim Crow South. In the 1880s, he led his family out of Virginia and found work as a teamster for the Pullman Palace Car Company. Joseph, his wife Martha, and their children made their home in a rowhouse in the town of Pullman.

Company founder George Pullman created the town to rent homes to workers like Jordan who enjoyed access to parks, schools, and entertainment. The town even had indoor plumbing with a sewage system that made Pullman one of the cleanest towns in America. George Pullman envisioned the town as an idyllic home for workers. The town fell short of this vision during the economic depression of 1893, as Pullman decreased wages without lowering rents. His refusal to meet with a delegation of workers resulted in a nationwide strike in 1894. Though not perfect, Pullman was home to Joseph and Martha Jordan for the rest of their lives—Martha passed in 1923 and Joseph followed in 1940 at the age of 79.

Jordan Family

Joseph Jordan is third from the left in this family portrait

Pullman Factory

Interior of the Pullman manufacturing shop

Pullman Homes

Street view of the original Pullman homes

Ritta DeFreitas

Madeira's Central Illinois Exiles

In the mid-1800s, hundreds of Portuguese residents on the island of Madeira, off the coast of Morocco, converted to Presbyterianism. This created conflicts with their Catholic neighbors, so they set out to build a safer community in the English Protestant colony of Trinidad. They soon began looking for a less tropical location where they could live more independently. Central Illinoisans, especially in Springfield and Jacksonville, offered them a new home.

Among the Madeira exiles in Springfield was young seamstress Ritta de Silva. In 1856, she married Francisco (Frank) DeFreitas, a painter and fellow Portuguese Protestant.  DeFreitas' clients included the Lincolns and she appears to have grown close to the future First Family—borrowing money and receiving two items from their home when they moved to Washington. Ritta and her fellow exiles carved out homes for themselves in Central Illinois and many of their descendants remain here today.

Newspaper Advertisement

Classified ad for Ritta DeFreitas’s seamstress business.

The Lincoln Home

The Lincoln family were clients of Ritta DeFreitas in their Springfield, Illinois, home

Madeira district

Map of Springfield in 1855 showing the location known as “Madeira,” where Portuguese refugees settled.

Lincoln’s Mirror

Abraham Lincoln’s shaving mirror, given to Ritta DeFreitas when he moved to Washington.

ALPLM Collection

Jean Baptiste Point de Sable

Chicago, Home in a Contested Space

Jean Baptiste Point de Sable was the first permanent non-Native settler of what is now called Chicago. A free, Haitian-born descendent of an enslaved African mother and a French father, he moved to the Chicago area from what is now Peoria in the 1780s. At his new home he cultivated a farm consisting of 30 head of livestock and nine buildings, including a chicken house and a dairy. By 1790, Point de Sable and his Potawatomi wife, Kitihawa (also known as Catherine), had created a prosperous home on the northern bank of the Chicago River.

Point de Sable constructed his home during the Revolution Era when Chicago was a contested space. He navigated a complicated existence between Native nations and the French, British, and upstart American empires. His kinship through marriage to the Potawatomi made his home a regional hub that welcomed both Native and European traders. Point de Sable likely foresaw the collapse of this cosmopolitan existence as the United States asserted its growing power in the region, and he sold his home in 1800, moving to French territory on the west bank of the Mississippi.

The Kinzie house, built by de Sable in the 1780s. 

Raoul Varin's imagining of the de Sable cabin in Chicago.

DuSable Receipt

1796 transaction document showing Point de Sable making a barter payment on his account through his son-in-law

Courtesy of St. Charles County Historical Society

Benjamin Driggs

The Mormon Quest for Home

Throughout their history, the Latter-day Saints have searched for a home where they are free to practice their faith. In 1839, they fled persecution in Missouri to create such a place in Nauvoo, Illinois. Led by Joseph Smith, the Mormons formed a local government and set about building a massive temple. In all, they spent a million dollars on the structure. Yet it was never completed because less than a decade later internal and external forces had pushed them out of Nauvoo.

Three generations of the Driggs family lived in Nauvoo during its short time as a Mormon sanctuary. Young Benjamin Driggs grew up there while his father Shadrach built wagons to help families moving further west. Benjamin became a folk hero for donating his own treasured wagon—made by his father—to workers building the temple. Like his fellow Mormons, Benjamin eventually fled his home in Nauvoo, living for a brief time in Iowa before settling in Utah.

Mormon temple built in Nauvoo, Illinois

A children’s book about Driggs written by his son.

A bucket reportedly owned by Benjamin Driggs and used by him while helping rescue other Mormons migrating away from Nauvoo.

Courtesy of The Church of Latter-day Saints

"Free" Frank McWorter

Building a Free Home

Among the many freedoms stripped from enslaved Black Americans was a stable sense of home. Indeed, the very concept of home became contorted as enslaved families faced harsh living conditions and the constant threat of forced separation and removal. Yet, despite these obstacles, some people took risks to secure their freedom and build a home

“Free" Frank McWorter was one such person. Enslaved until his 42nd year, he earned enough money “hiring out” himself to purchase his freedom. Over time, more and more members of the family earned their freedom in this way and then in turn purchased freedom for others. McWorter moved from Kentucky to Illinois in 1830 and settled on 80 acres in Pike County. He did well, eventually expanding his holdings and apportioning part of them into the community of New Philadelphia—the first American town legally platted by a Black person. The biracial community McWorter built offered the same sense of freedom and home to others that he had carved out for his own family.

New Philadelphia daily life.

A map of New Philadelphia.

New Philadelphia Table

A table built by Solomon McWorter, Frank McWorter’s son, at New Philadelphia.

Courtesy of the McWorter Family

Finding Home Question:

How many times in your life have you moved to a new house / apartment?

Envisioning Home

Discovering an ideal home has always been a process of imagination. These stories show people taking an imaginative leap to recraft what home means to better meet their needs.

R. Buckminster Fuller

Less is More

It took seven hours to build R. Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller’s home in Carbondale. The new home used the conservationist design that had made Fuller famous – a geodesic dome that was easy to build, could withstand great weights, and required few resources. Comprised of 60 isosceles-triangle plywood panels, Fuller’s unique Carbondale home was the only dome he ever lived in and owned. The one downside to the geodesic home, his wife Anne claimed, was that “you could not hang paintings because they would be just sort of dangling out from the curve.”

Though Fuller’s design is most recognized as the key feature of Walt Disney’s Epcot Center, the geodesic dome was only part of Fuller’s larger vision for humanity. He was adamant that “man can be a success on this planet” and Earth’s resources were adequate to take care of everyone who called it home for generations to come.

Blue Prints

Design for the Fuller Dome Home

Dome Home

A "dome home" under construction inspired by Fuller's concepts

Fuller Dymaxion Car Replica

This example of Fuller's 1933 Dymaxion Car #1 demonstrates his forward-thinking design prowess

Courtesy of the Lane Motor Museum

Fuller Design Model

A model of Fuller's design for a geodesic sphere created by Charles B. Ryan, a professor at the University of Oregon, in collaboration with Fuller in the 1960s.

Courtesy of Special Collections / Morris Library, Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Margaret Burroughs

The Home of Black History

In the time when white supremacy renders other histories invisible, they need to find unconventional homes. In 1961, Margaret Burroughs and her husband Charles transformed their Chicago home into such a place – the first iteration of the DuSable Museum. At that time, there were few outlets for Black Americans to explore art and history from their perspective, and Burroughs paved the way by carving her own path.

Born in Louisiana, Burroughs moved to Chicago as a child, eventually earned degrees at Chicago Normal College (now Chicago State University) and the Art Institute. Making her career as an artist and educator, Burroughs immersed herself in the broader Black intellectual activist community. Grounded in her activism to help form the South Side Community Art Center and her insistence on the teaching of Black History, Burroughs established the Ebony Museum of Negro History and Art (now DuSable Museum) in her home, which had once been a boardinghouse for African American rail workers. From the Museum’s beginning, Burroughs focused on collecting the material culture of Black History and would often place ads in The Chicago Defender soliciting artifacts. Burroughs’s pioneering work establishing the DuSable Museum became a roadmap for other Black History museums to follow, eventually leading her to co-found the Association of African American Museums.

Original DuSable Museum

The original location of the DuSable Museum was in Margaret Burrough's home in Chicago.

Burroughs in the DuSable Museum

Burroughs (second to the left) leads a tour in the museum

Margaret Burroughs Art

A linoleum-scratched print portrait of Harriet Tubman by Margaret Burroughs

Courtesy of the DuSable Black History Museum and Education Center

Fred Francis

Envisioning Accessibility

Fred Francis designed and built Woodland Palace in the 1890s as a home for him and his wife, Jeanette. He endeavored to make the house accessible for Jeanette, who suffered from tuberculosis, and since fresh air was considered important for treating her disease, he built Illinois’s first ever air conditioner. In the solarium, a room Fred dedicated to Jeanette, he created a system that cycled the air every minute.

Indeed, Woodland Palace sprang from a place of love, but it was also a testament to Fred’s imagination. A mathematical and engineering genius, Fred created a refrigeration room that never rose above 50 degrees and designed a complex water filtration system that purified rainwater as it flowed underground through sand, gravel, and charcoal before reaching Woodland’s cistern. Above all, Woodland was a place for Fred and Jeanette to grow old together. When Jeanette passed, Fred honored her memory by installing a marble sculpture in the solarium.

Woodland Palace

Francis' home exterior in Kewanee, IL

Woodland Palace Drawings

Fred Francis drew these architectural designs himself

Fred Francis and wife Jeanette

Fred and Jeanette posed for this studio photo with his modified bicycle

Fred Francis' Custom Bicycle

Fred adapted this bicycle to carry his wife to church as well as construction materials

Courtesy of the City of Kewanee

Robert Todd Lincoln

Robert Retires

In 1903, Robert Todd Lincoln purchased a 392-acre estate near Manchester, Vermont. The only one of Abraham Lincoln’s four children to survive to adulthood, Robert had lived a busy life in the shadow of his father’s reputation and his family’s enormous grief. All these factors made home an elusive idea for Robert, as his personal and professional obligations often forced him into an exceptionally itinerate life.

The estate, which he called Hildene (old English for hill and valley with stream), became Robert’s refuge for the remainder of his life. There he found the privacy he had always sought, overlooking his favorite golf course. Yet Robert also found solace in claiming one of America’s founding myths—the nobility of the farmer. Although a large estate with a Georgian-revival mansion, Robert defined his new home as a farm, where he owned about 40 cows. As he pointedly told a friend, “I am now a Vermont farmer! and beginning to enjoy life.”


The gardens and rear facade of Hildene

Retired Life

Robert Todd Lincoln playing golf in his later years.

Hildene Place-Setting

A place-setting from Hildene inscribed with Robert Todd Lincoln's initials.

ALPLM Collection - Gift of Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, 1976

Susan Lawrence Dana

Heiress of the Prairie (Style)

Susan Lawrence Dana’s extravagant lifestyle was fueled by heartache. She became an heiress upon the 1901 death of her beloved father and chose to renovate his Springfield home to cater to her progressive lifestyle. For that, Dana hired burgeoning architect Frank Lloyd Wright and he transformed the structure into a masterpiece of modernity. The grandiose result embodied their partnership and Dana’s multifaceted identity as she hosted women’s rights activists, orphans for story time, and local celebrities at parties.

Wright’s vision and architectural style are apparent throughout the entire home, but each room was built to complement Dana’s passions, ideals, and unlimited budget. From the local lumber used to structure the home to the motif of butterflies—referencing her as a “social butterfly”—neatly woven throughout the house, Dana’s various roles are constantly apparent to visitors. Wright captured the essence of the Midwestern landscape through his Prairie Style and Dana’s progressivism in the home’s design.

Dana Thomas House Gallery

Interior of the gallery space and barrel ceiling

Dana Thomas House Exterior

The unique front entrance as designed by Frank Lloyd Wright

Susan Lawrence Dana

Portrait of Susan Lawrence Dana in front of her home c. 1915

Dana / Wright Art Table and Art

A Frank Lloyd Wright table design for displaying Dana's artwork because his architectural plan did not allow for hanging anything on the walls. Water color paintings signed by E. Pike from the Lawrence family.

Courtesy of the Dana Thomas House, Illinois Department of Natural Resources

Envisioning Home Question:

When you think of home, what do you think of first?

Familial Home

Home can be a place, but it can just as often be found in family—both the family of our blood and the family we choose. These stories show the power family has to create and remake homes.

Michelle Obama

“We Were Their Investment”

Michelle Robinson Obama called the White House her home from 2009-2017 but grew up in an apartment of less than 800 square feet on Chicago’s South Shore. It was the second story of her Great Aunt Robbie’s house. Robbie was a piano teacher, and the sound of her students playing often filled the home. Michelle and her brother Craig shared a room with a makeshift partition providing limited privacy.

Yet the smallness of the Robinson home in part reflected a choice made by Michelle’s parents, Fraser and Marian. Instead of investing their modest income in a house, they chose to invest in their children. Michelle and Craig thrived in this environment, with both eventually attending Princeton University. After receiving a law degree at Harvard, Michelle returned home to Chicago where she worked as a lawyer and later invested in her own family.

Robinson Family

Fraser and Marian Shields Robinson and children, Craig and Michelle

School photo

Young Michelle Robinson Obama at Bryn Mawr Elementary School.

Michelle Obama's Piano Trophy

A trophy won by Michelle (Robinson) Obama as a young girl for her piano playing

Cahokia Commoner

The Mississippian Home

Between about 700-1200 CE, a group of Indigenous tribes – now commonly referred to as Mississippians – built a vast trading network across the Mississippi Valley and American Southeast. The hubs for this network were communities built around earthen mounds, potentially housing thousands of people. The largest was Cahokia, located near present-day Collinsville. At its peak between 100-1150. As many as 40,000 people lived there and in the surrounding communities, making it one of the largest cities in the world.

Women ran Cahokia homes cooperatively. Their houses often surrounded plazas and courtyards, indicating they traversed the lines between households easily, and nearby residents intermingled with and supported each other. Thus, the people of Cahokia likely viewed their homes as extending outside their walls to the broader community. In doing so, they provide one of our earliest glimpses of people conceptualizing living spaces in the Illinois Country.

Cohokia Mounds

Mural painted of Cahokia Mounds by Lloyd K Townsend.

Cahokia Mounds

Painting by William R. Iseminger depicting Cahokia Mounds.

Cahokia Tablet

Original “Birdman” Tablet from Cahokia.

Cahokia Pot

A pot from a Cahokia home recovered during an archaeological dig.

Courtesy of the Illinois State Museum

Lowney Handy

The Handy Writers Colony

Lowney Handy of Robinson was one of the most influential literary mentors of the mid-20th century but her approach to teaching the craft of writing involved a unique concept of home. Having mentored and shared an adulterous relationship with James Jones while he wrote From Here to Eternity in the aftermath of World War 2, Handy then founded a “writers colony” in nearby Marshall to mentor young aspiring authors.

Handy immersed her all-male colony residents in a spartan, masculine world of writing. They lived on strict daily schedules, with only limited weekly “leave” from the grounds. After weeks of copying literary works by famed authors, the men then split the afternoons. Through its 1950s lifespan, the colony’s unique concept of home – shaped almost entirely by Handy’s vision of an ideal, rugged male writer – produced over a dozen books, including four adapted into Hollywood films. The colony ended with Handy’s death in 1964.

Handy Colony

The barracks at the Handy Colony

Lowney Handy and James Jones

Lowney Handy with James Jones (right) at the Handy Colony.

From Here To Eternity

Swedish version

From Here to Eternity

French version

From Here to Eternity

Dutch version

Jane Addams

The Heart of Hull-House

Hull-House stands as a testament to the progressive social campaigns that its affluent co-founder Jane Addams orchestrated. A converted mansion, which eventually expanded into a 13-building settlement complex housing low-income, mostly European immigrant Chicagoans, Hull-House also provided women with skills and education to break into male-dominated fields and support for low-income mothers. Hull-House staff advocated for women’s right to work and a safe home environment, which were vital components of Addams’s identity as she helped shift conversations about poverty away from moral rebuke to focus more of social welfare.

A queer woman, Addams carved an unconventional path for herself by maintaining a long-term relationship with fellow Hull-House benefactor Mary Rozet Smith. For Addams, home was a person and where she could be herself completely. Outside of her home, there was always a risk of society rejecting her for who she loved. Addams’s private domesticity and her philanthropic work show how she believed women should be loved and respected within their own home, regardless of status or sexual orientation.

The Hull House

Founded in 1889 on Chicago's Near West Side

Jane Addams and Mary Rozet Smith

Jane Addams never married and never had children yet was in a long-term relationship with her life partner Mary Rozet Smith.

Jane Addams bronze bust

A 1964 bust of Addams by Lawrence Taylor, commissioned by the Illinois General Assembly to commemorate her 100th birthday.

Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum

Elizabeth “Buffie” Ives

Siblings Fashion a Home

Elizabeth “Buffie” Ives had always been close with her brother Adlai Stevenson, even at their childhood home in Bloomington. Early in life while their father was often away, they found a sense of home in each other. Even the lifelong nickname “Buffie” grew from Adlai’s childhood mispronunciation of her name. After Buffie married Earnest Ives, she and Adlai remained close confidantes. It was a relationship built on an unbreakable foundation.

When Adlai became Illinois’s governor in 1949, his marriage was already under stress and completely fell apart later that year. Buffie stepped in to fulfill the formal duties of first lady as her brother’s hostess, spending much of her time at the Illinois Governor’s Mansion. A major part of this role included furnishing and redecorating the Mansion. Her eye for decorating added comfort to their new surroundings, but the enduring bond between sister and brother made it a home.

Buffie and Adlai

Buffie Ives and her brother Adlai Stevenson in the governor’s mansion.

Adlai and Buffie

Adlai Stevenson and Buffie Ives.

Stevenson-Ives Christening Gown

A christening gown worn by Buffie and likely by Adlai.

Courtesy of the McLean County Museum of History

Familial Home Question:

Aside from the actual structure, what is another concept that you most associate with home?

Surviving Home

Home is not always a comfortable place. It can be a dangerous space where harmful forces seek to oppress. Here we see Illinoisans resisting and escaping the brutality of places they once called home.

Richard Pryor

The Absurdity of Racism

In his early days as a comic, Richard Pryor would joke about his childhood in mid-20th century Peoria and its unofficial color line. “Peoria’s a model city,” he would say. “That means they’ve got the Negroes under control.” His experiences in Peoria were unique, but also exemplified the second-class status forced on many Black families in the Midwest.

Pryor’s parents, a pimp and a prostitute, divorced when he was young. He then lived with his grandmother, Marie Carter, who owned three houses in the city – two brothels and a nightclub. While there is hardship embedded in his story, Pryor was acutely aware of the absurdity inherent in it and its broader context, especially that his skin color could deny him the same rights as a white person. Pryor’s comedy career pushed boundaries to expose the absurdity and made him one of the most influential comics in history.

Pryor's Home

300 Block of N. Washington in Peoria (1938), housing brothels (third from the left, lower level, and fourth from the left, upper level) run by Pryor’s grandmother, father, uncle, and aunt.

Field trip to Springfield

Richard Pryor visiting the Illinois State Capitol as a young student.

Mary Lincoln

Mary Adrift

The idea of home looms large in Mary Lincoln’s story. Growing up in relative opulence due to profits from the labor of enslaved people in Lexington, Kentucky, Mary spent much of her adult life trying to reclaim that sense of comfort and position. She and Abraham’s Springfield home became an expression of Mary’s ambition and domestic priorities—literally growing the longer she lived in it, including the addition of an entire second floor.

In Washington, Mary obsessed over the Executive Mansion and worked hard to make its appearance match its status after years of neglect. Yet Abraham’s assassination disrupted everything, and Mary never again reclaimed her sense of domesticity and stability. Mary resented the unwanted attention drawn by her widowhood and as a figure of controversy. To escape her immense grief and anxiety, Mary even relocated to Europe. Yet the comforts of home continued to elude her as she continued to move from place to place, including a tragic, forced stay in an insane asylum.

The Lincoln Home

413 South Eighth Street at the corner of Jackson Street in Springfield, IL

Mary and children

Mary Lincoln with sons Willie (left) and Tad (right).

Mary's Memento

A pocket watch with its mechanical parts removed that Mary used to carry photographs of her husband and children.

Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum,
Gift of Alice B. Colonna, 2005

Hazel Johnson

The Mother of Environmental Justice

Hazel Johnson, her husband John, and their seven children lived in the Altgeld Gardens public housing project on Chicago’s South Side. Their homelife was shattered by John’s death in 1969 from lung cancer at 41 years old. Johnson’s children, as well as neighbors, suffered from a variety of illnesses that made her suspect the factories surrounding their home were endangering their health.

After conducting her own research, Johnson discovered that not only was Altgeld Gardens built on a toxic industrial waste dump and surrounded by 50 landfills (as she called it, the “toxic doughnut"), but that political leaders refused to intervene on behalf of low-income Black families anywhere in the city. Johnson founded the People for Community Recovery (PCR) initially to address tenant issues but pivoted after discovering that her community had the highest cancer rates in the region. She organized her neighbors against polluting companies and the Chicago Housing Authority, which resulted in key victories, such as the new health clinic, asbestos removal, a moratorium on new or expanding landfills in Chicago, and extending water and sewage service. Johnson mentored young activists, including her daughter Cheryl, who now serves as PCR’s executive director, and President Barack Obama.


President George H. W. Bush recognizing Hazel Johnson for her environmental justice work.


Hazel Johnson with Vice President Al Gore at the White House.

Award Plaque

The Chicago Audubon Society Protector of the Environment Award, 1986

Courtesy of People for Community Recovery


A certificate from the Environmental Protection Agency for being a charter member of the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, 1995

Courtesy of People for Community Recovery

Betty Friedan

“The Problem that had No Name”

Betty Friedan grew up in Peoria the daughter of a jeweler and a stay-at-home mom. When she married in 1947, the breadwinner husband and wife with kids at home was still widely considered the middle-class ideal.

Friedan began interrogating this ideal after the birth of her second child while also balancing her career as a journalist. She surveyed her Smith College classmates and Friedan’s findings led her to write The Feminine Mystique, in which she critiqued white, middle-class women’s roles in 1960s society. In her book she asks, “Who knows what women can be when they are finally free to become themselves? Who knows what women’s intelligence will contribute when it can be nourished without denying love?” The book became a sensation, causing women around the world to reexamine their own ideas of home and limited gender roles. Friedan’s activism led her to join with Pauli Murray and Aileen Hernandez in establishing the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966.

NOW Organization

Kathryn Clarenbach and Betty Friedan announcing NOW’s adoption of a Bill of Rights for Women.


Smith College Associate News (SCAN) members 1941/1942. Friedan is seated at the table, 5th from the left with her hands on the table.

The Feminine Mystique

A first edition of Betty Friedan’s groundbreaking The Feminine Mystique.

Courtesy of the Illinois State Library

Tina Turner

Tina Turner Breaks Free

Anna Mae Bullock arrived in St. Louis in 1956. She was 16 – the perfect age to jump into the thriving Black nightclub scene across the Mississippi. “East St. Louis had action” she would later recall. “It never seemed to stop.” Bullock became part of that action when she pushed her way onto the stage during a performance by Ike Turner’s band – immediately becoming its new lead singer.

Ike and Anna’s partnership shaped the direction of American music but also immersed Anna – renamed Tina Turner to better market the act – in a horrifying home life dominated by Ike’s physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Tina tried to build a family home with Ike and their four children, but his abuse only grew until she walked out in 1976. Tina had to restart her career but soon reemerged as one of America’s biggest music stars and set about building a happier and healthier home life.

Ike and Tina

Tina and Ike Turner performing at the Imperial Club in East St. Louis.

Turner Family

Ike and Tina Turner with their four children.

Tina Turner's Dress

A dress Turner wore during a 1982 appearance on The Tonight Show.

Courtesy of the Tina Turner Museum, West Tennesse Delta Heritage Center

Surviving Home Question:

Which of the following events would most likely cause you to leave home?

a. A natural catastrophe

b. A better paying job

c. To care for an ailing loved one

d. Anything...you are always looking for a reason to leave

e. Nothing could convince you to leave

Reporting Home

Louisa Phifer

For All the World Be Careful

For most of America’s history, only men could serve as combat soldiers – often making wartime homes the province of women. In the final year of the Civil War, 39-year-old Louisa Phifer balanced caring for her 7 children (including patriotically named newborn Atlanta Sherman) with managing the family’s farm near Vandalia, as her husband George served in the 32nd Illinois Infantry. The couple wrote frequently, and Louisa’s letters are a mix of anxiety over George’s fortunes and updates on the farm.

In one letter, Louisa frets she will become a widow if George doesn’t keep himself safe. In his reply, he can only encourage her to “show the spirit of a soldiers wide.” Yet Louisa’s effective management of their home is also clear as she reports on crop yields, well repairs, and sale prices. Like many women on the home front, Louisa’s life was a constant series of challenges to avoid personal or economic disaster.

Phifer Cabin

Ink sketch of the Phifer cabin, drawn by Mary Phifer Stone.

Louisa and Child

Louisa and Atlanta Sherman

Copy of the original ambrotype Louisa mailed in a letter to her husband George Phifer.


Washington Irving and Simon Bolivar

Copy of the original ambrotype Louisa mailed in a letter to her husband George Phifer.

George and Ulrica

George Aurelius and Ulrica

Copy of the original ambrotype Louisa mailed in a letter to her husband George Phifer.

Letter from Louisa to George

Transcription page 1 :

Vandalia Fayette Co Ills March 8th /65

Dear Husband & Father

We seat ourselves this evening to answer your very kind letter of the 4th which came to hand last night it found us all well & as far as I know the neighbors are all well with the exceptions of Colds which is common now you said it had rained a great deal there in the last ten days & that the river was very high it has rained a great deal here in the last two weeks by times and for 2 or 3 days past it has rained almost all the time it is raining torrents now but I suppose it is colder here than it is there the road is more than bad Father I will tell you who all has volunteered since the tax was levied first. Schuyler Bascom. Naaman Bascom. William Mabry. Abraham Slusser. David George. William Starnes. [Coen] Starnes. William Meeks.

Letter from Louisa to George

Transcription of page 2 - 3:

& a great many more that I cant think of now O [gus Mcgnew] got in a notion to go and went and got a horse, fed & watered it & got ready to start to town and then backed out he took a scary spill I guess but all that went has not filled, the quota so there was a draft which, went off to day George you said there was, twenty Widows made in Nashville a day, O my God grant that it may not be, my lot to thus become a widow for it such a thing should happen I would go Crazy and die before an hour

I think it is the best thing you can do to leave there as soon as possible I am afraid you will not get home very soon having to Change hospitals so much but George any way to get home as soon as possible you told how much I would take to get a Discharge or Furlough if I had of known it I would not of been quite so determined in my writing but you must excuse me for being so impetuous

Page 3:  but George I wanted to see you and made up a great deal after we got your letter in which you said you would try & Come home soon we almost looked every day for you do not stay there on account of getting your money alone for we do not need it but as soon as you can get relieved leave there and go to another hospital but get home as get quick as possible George the things all looks very well the oxen looks about as well as they did when you left it is very wet here now so we can not do much but as soon as you it dries off some we will haul out the manure & get the other work done. Father I think the gray mare will, have a Colt first & I will take the best care of them when they do have A Colt that I can they are both in good order they do not fight & seem

Letter from Louisa to George

Transcription page 4:

to be mated together very, well they Colt is not in quite as good order as the mare he is a little lousy but I think he is getting rid of them now we have not much to write to night that would interest you we are glad you got a letter from Clara and that they was all well, we will have to Close by hoping for your health & Happiness & by Sending you our love

From L J Phifer & Children to G B Phifer


This cradle is from an 1860s Illinois home.

Oscar Micheaux

The Homesteader

The quest for home consumed Oscar Micheaux, a writer, filmmaker, and creator of the first Black-owned independent film company. Born in Metropolis, a de facto Jim Crow town in a Northern state, Micheaux left for Chicago as a young man in 1902. He found work as a Pullman railway porter, and as he traveled the country, the vast prairies tugged at his imagination. He admired the “fine country homes so characteristic of the great middle west” and claimed a homestead in South Dakota. For ten years, Micheaux farmed and battled the elements before losing his home to foreclosure.

Micheaux had turned to his new passions – writing and filmmaking – and the search for home haunted his work. Micheaux’s first book, The Conquest, explores his experience in South Dakota. His films, often informed by his years homesteading, cathartically grapple with racism in the United States but maintain hope for the future. The name Oscar Micheaux now resides on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Homestead Claim

Oscar Micheaux’s homestead claim in South Dakota.

The Homesteader

Advertisement for Micheaux’s first film, The Homesteader, in the Kansas City Sun newspaper.

Film Director

Oscar Micheaux with his film camera.

Mieczyslaw Haiman

Forging a Polish America

Mieczyslaw Haiman spent his life forging the idea of the United States as a second Polish homeland. Born near Lviv in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1888, Haiman emigrated to the United States in 1913. After years of writing poetry and editing Polish language newspapers, he embarked upon a career mapping the historical connections between his ancestral homeland and the U.S as librarian for the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America (PRCUA). As he grew the PRCUA’s collection, he became the founder, first archivist, and curator of the Polish Museum of America in Chicago.

As archivist and curator, Haiman seized an opportunity to physically link Poland to his new American home. In September 1939, five months into the New York World’s Fair, the cloud of war loomed over the festivities as Germany invaded Poland. Determined to preserve the Polish items at the Fair, Haiman and his colleagues purchased three-fourths of the Polish Pavilion’s exhibits. They remain in the Polish Museum’s collection where Haiman continued his work identifying objects and writing to ensure the storied of Polonia were preserved and widely shared.

Creating a Museum

Polish Museum of America employees: Mieczyslaw Haiman,
Dr. A.Wolanin, and Sabina Logisz.

Polish Pavilion

Polish Pavilion at New York World’s Fair.

“Kolednicy” (“Carolers”) Sculpture

Sculpture by Karol Tchorek from Polish Pavilion at the 1939 World’s Fair.

Courtesy of The Polish Museum of America

Don Alonzo Spaulding

Remaking Places

Don Alonzo Spaulding spent much of the 1830s traveling and surveying land in Illinois – dividing it based on the grid system. This survey method created townships and ranges split into 640-acre sections that ignored natural boundaries and artificially flattened territory to make it easier to understand for prospective settler colonizers.

Native nations like the Potawatomie had made Illinois home for generations before the existence of a single 640-acre square on a survey map. These maps helped rationalize Native places into unoccupied territory ready to be claimed by white settler colonizers. Spaulding was part of this process. He prepared land for white settler colonization in the wake of the violent removal of Native peoples.

Surveying Map

Spaulding’s map of Illinois that aided him while surveying.


Spaulding would have used a survey compass like this one to map territory in Illinois.

Spaulding Survey Map

An 1830s survey of Rockvale Township in Ogle County by Spaulding.

Martha Douglas

Enslaving the Home

Martha Martin grew up the daughter of Robert Martin – Congressman and one of the richest enslavers in North Carolina, claiming more than 800 African America people as property. The enormous wealth accrued from forced labor afforded Martha a robust education and access to some of the most powerful suitors in America. Among them was Stephen A. Douglas of Quincy – a fast-rising-star when he married her at her father’s North Carolina slave labor camp in 1847.

The Martins also oppressed and enslaved Black people at their Mississippi slave labor camp, which they offered to Douglas as a dowry. Douglas declined because of the political implications, but Martha claimed as inheritance the Mississippi slave labor camp the following year. Neither Stephen nor Martha ever lived there, but Stephen was an active participant in its maintenance – including supervising the violent oppression and sale of enslaved people. Their situation presents a stark image of an antebellum white enslaver’s conception of home as a remote location where residents were claimed as mere chattel property.

Stephen A. Douglas

Stephen A. Douglas, husband of Martha Douglas.


Image of Robert Martin’s Will.

A Letter from Mississippi

A letter to Stephen A. Douglas from Martha’s Mississippi slave-labor-camp manager detailing the violent methods used to control and oppress enslaved people.

Transcription page 1:

Martinsville, Miss. Jan 25th 1853.

My Dr Judge.

Yours of the 4th Inst. has been recd. I was vary glad to hear from you & that you will be hear soon or at least this spring. it is vary nesesary that you should come as soon as you can. I find that I can not do any thing towards administering in your name. the best way is for you to come & administer on the estate. & and put me in possession with sefishent power so that I can protect your property. Buckley has stoped me again from all roads & pass ways to the lower plantation. I have nough to do my pasing by skifts up & down the river. though mr Goode tells me that the Injunction is still in forse & and I shall make the attempt to morrow to pass again on the road though they for bid any one passing. I understand their grounds is that they is no proper representive here to answer for the estate & thare fore they shall be no passing. the above throughbly causes me a grate many disadvantages   pleas to come as soon as you can.

A Letter from Mississippi

A letter to Stephen A. Douglas from Martha’s Mississippi slave-labor-camp manager detailing the violent methods used to control and oppress enslaved people.

Transcription page 2:

Buckley is Chancelor him self. thare for our biziness would have to be taken before chancelor Scott of Jackson whitch would gaive us more troughble & expense. thare for I must do the best I can & let every thing by still until you come. he Run as a states man states rites man & against paying the union bank bonds &C. against 4 other small Lawyers that was union democrats except one was a whig. thare fore the weeke party of this district elected Buckley. I have not had any opertunity of shiping the crop yet but think I will soon.

I am geting on vary well with my work. I think I have got the best oversear I have had yet. some of the negroes has bin troughblesome lately   Nezer drew his ax on the oversear & driver & has run a way   the oversear set my dog on him that I have trained for negroes   he cut him nearly in 2 with his ax.

Mrs Branch of Gorgia the sister of Mrs Martin has sent her negroes hear by her yougest son & sonen Law Mr Morris. to settle them in this neighborhood or to sell them as they think best & they have concluded not to settle them but to sell them & is vary

A Letter from Mississippi

A letter to Stephen A. Douglas from Martha’s Mississippi slave-labor-camp manager detailing the violent methods used to control and oppress enslaved people.

Transcription page 3:

anxious to trade them to you as tho negroes begs them to so had to trade them to you as you have their relations. 2 of them are sisters to Joe & Julia one of them has 6 Children the other has 7 makes 15 in the 2 families & then one likely youg wooman besides makes 16 in all and all vary likely. your negroes also begs for you to by them. they say for the sake of selling them to you to be with their relations they would take any of your negroes in place of theirs. I would think this to be a good arrangement. they are willing to have theirs & yours priced by any 2 or 3 disentered rested men that would be good Judges of negro property. you owns the mother Brothers & sisters of the 2 wooman that has 13 children this would be all of Yeakes family. I think this would be a good arrangement for your children as you can have the power to act for your children same as your self after being appointed gurdend. as it is likely they will [crep] them in the neighborhood afiew weeks they want you to wright them as early as possible, they boath apear to be fine men. John Broash has bin dead abote 2 year that use to live on this place. Mrs. S & children joins me in our best regards

Jas Strickland

A Letter from Mississippi

A letter to Stephen A. Douglas from Martha’s Mississippi slave-labor-camp manager detailing the violent methods used to control and oppress enslaved people.

Transcription page 4:

JAN 27
Hon Stephen. A. Douglas. U.S.S.
Washington, DC
Via New Orleans
Martinsville, Miss
James Strickland About your plantation
Jany 28/53

Reporting Home Question:

When away from home, what do you miss most?

Fighting for Home

Lorraine Hansberry

Exposing Chicago’s South Side

Lorraine Hansberry was only 8 years old when a brick burst through the window of her South Side home, almost striking her. Angry white neighbors had thrown it to stop her family from desegregating Chicago’s Washington Park subdivision. A lawsuit was filed against the Hansberrys. The case concerned racially restrictive housing covenants, which barred Black Americans from leasing or purchasing land in the subdivision – a common tool of de facto racial segregation reinforced by banks and real estate agents. The dispute reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1939, which affirmed the Hansberry’s right to live in the neighborhood.

This struggle traumatized Lorraine and she later poured that trauma into the script of “A Raisin in the Sun.” Set entirely in a South Side apartment, it tells the story of a Chicago South Side family navigating the inherent racism of 20th Century American life and the affect it has on the Black community. In 1959, it became the first play written by a Black Woman to be staged on Broadway and later as a Hollywood film – exposing thousands of audience members to the reality of Black home life in urban America.

Critic's Circle Award

John McClain presents the 1959 New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award for best play to Lorraine Hansberry.

Press Coverage on Battle

Illinois State Journal, February 12, 1939, article about the Hansberrys’ battle to remain in their Washington Park home.

Best American Play

Freeport Journal-Standard, April 10, 1959, article reviewing Hansberry’s production “A Raisin in the Sun.”

The Hansberry Decision

The State of Illinois’s received copy of the U. S. Supreme Court’s decision regarding the Hansberry case.

Courtesy of the Illinois State Archives and Illinois Supreme Court

Charles Gibbs

Witness a House Divided

Recognized as one of the most prominent Black lawyers in Central Illinois, Tennessee-born Charles S. Gibbs made Springfield his home for nearly half his life after working as a coal miner in Kentucky and Southern Illinois. Labor activism led him to pursue a career in law. Gibbs passed the bar exam in 1908 and established his office above Harry Loper’s restaurant on South 5th Street. Weeks later, Loper’s became the first business targeted by white aggressors during the 1908 Springfield Race Riots.

Mere blocks from the house Gibbs rented for his family on North 14th Street, rioters attempted to suppress the economic advancement of Black residents by looting and burning homes or prosperous families. After experiencing the terror of the riots, Gibbs remained in Springfield to fight for justice for all in Abraham Lincoln’s hometown. In 1929, Gibbs would join a local group to combat the Ku Klux Klan, a terrorist organization Gibbs denounced as a “menace to the administration of justice in the courts.”

Passing the Bar

Newspaper article announcing Gibbs’s admittance to the bar.


Example of damage to a Black residence during the 1908 Race Riot in Springfield.


Aftermath of the 1908 Springfield Race Riot.

Remains of a Dresser

Limestone top and wheeled furniture casters from a dresser in a home burned in the 1908 Springfield Race Riots.

Courtesy of the Illinois State Museum

Harvey Clark

A Home Denied

Chicagoans Harvey and Johnetta Clark planned to make a home in the suburbs in the summer of 1951. As Black Americans moving into an apartment in all-white Cicero, a process known as pioneering, they walked into a storm of hate and intimidation. The Clarks’ new neighbors stood across the street shouting racial slurs and throwing rocks. The next night the couple fled, and while the apartment sat vacant, a mob of approximately 4,000 white people ransacked the Clarks’ new home.

It took three days for the National Guard to put down the mob that rioted against the Clark family, but only the Clarks’ landlord and the rental agent were indicted, both for inciting a riot by renting a home to a Black family. The Clark family’s ordeal served as a reminder of northern hostility to migrating African Americans and echoed Illinois’s long history of “sundown towns” – places that violently enforced Black exclusion. Towns like Anna, Pekin, and Villa Grove often had warning signs, sirens, or a strong Klan presence that indicated that Black people should leave by sunset. Other places like Cicero posted no sign but enforced the racist policies just the same.

The Clark Family

Cicero Riots

Chicago Defender July 21, 1951, reporting on the Cicero Riots.

Time Magazine cover, 1951

Time Magazine article page 1

The July 23, 1951, issue of Time magazine including the Clark’s harrowing story.

Time Magazine article page 2

The July 23, 1951, issue of Time magazine including the Clark’s harrowing story.

Ida B. Wells–Barnett

Fighting for Black Security

Ida B. Wells-Barnett threw herself and her powerful command of language into many causes, but they all reflected a desire for safe and secure Black homes. Born with a slave status during the Civil War and losing her parents due to a yellow fever epidemic at 16, she had a keen sense of the fragility of Black life in a white supremacist society. In 1884, Wells filed a lawsuit for unfair treatment after she was forcibly removed from a first-class train despite holding up a paying ticket. She channeled her frustration about segregation into writing as a prolific newspaper reporter and owner – criticizing racial discrimination and Jim Crow policies.

After her friend Thomas Moss and two other Black businessmen were lynched, Wells began investigating other racial terror lynchings and writing about the injustice in her newspaper. As she reasons, “There is therefore only one thing left to do; save our money and leave a town which will neither protect out lives and property, nor give us a fair trial in the courts, but it takes us out and murders us in cold blood when accused by white persons.” Angered by these editorials, a white mob destroyed her newspaper office and she likely only survived because she was out of town. Wells did not return to Memphis, but continued to focus on documenting and describing the high rates of lynching since the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. In 1895, she married Ferdinand Barnett, a prominent civil rights activist, journalist, and attorney in Chicago, with whom she had four children. The couple’s Chicago home became a dual living and work space – with paternal responsibilities happening concurrently with Wells-Barnett’s crusade against white supremacy. In 1910, she provided a home space for other African Americans by founding the Negro Fellowship League – initially providing rooms for Black men but evolving into a center for Black uplift, social interaction, and activism.

Family Photo

Ida B. Wells-Barnett and her children.

Ferdinand Barnett


In her pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases, Black journalist Ida B. Wells-Barnett reports on the rising violence of lynchings in the United States.

Wells-Barnett Funeral Program

A program from Wells-Barnett’s funeral after she died in Chicago of kidney disease on March 25, 1931.

Courtesy the Amistad Research Center

Black Hawk

Resisting Cultural Genocide

Black Hawk stood watching his followers cross the Mississippi River eastward. The Sauk leader might have used that moment to reflect on his years in Saukenuk, a village near present day Rock Island where his people had lived since before the American Revolution. During the 1820s, white American colonizers increasingly pressured the Sauk to leave their home and move west of the Mississippi River. The U.S. government warned them not to return the Saukenuk after their winter hunt. Nevertheless, on this spring day in 1832, Black Hawk was coming home.

Knowing that Black Hawk disputed the U.S.’s claim to Saukenuk, Governor John Reynolds of Illinois expected conflict and called up the state militia. This assumption of hostility put Black Hawk and the U.S. military on a collision course. Months of fighting ensued and led to Black Hawk’s surrender. While imprisoned, he dictated his autobiography, arguing that “land cannot be sold. The Great Spirit gave it to his children to live upon, and cultivate, as far as is necessary for their subsistence; and so long as they occupy and cultivate it, they have the right to the soil.”

Battle Map

Map of battles between Black Hawk and the U.S. Army.

Depiction of Black Hawk.

Black Hawk’s Autobiography

A first edition of Life of Black Hawk or Má-ka-tai-me-she-kiá-kiák Dictated by Himself.


Throughout the exhibit, you have read about how people conceived of home in Illinois. Here, Illinoisans speak to you in their own words.

They discuss childhood memories of home, how they found home in the Prairie State, and some will even tell you about trials that challenged the way they imagined home.

Dr. Patrick Lam

Onyx Montes

Dr. Nicole Florence

Bryan Crain

Gabriela Ramirez

Mehul Trivedi

Bonnie Ho

Monica Boutwell

Original Soundtrack

About the Soundtrack:

The music featured in the gallery was composed specifically for the “Here I Have Lived: Home in Illinois” exhibit. ALPLM’s composer, Randy Erwin, created this music as a response to the six themes presented in the exhibit. The music was recorded by a chamber orchestra of musicians from our community under the direction of Mary E. Myers, conductor. The musicians were recorded on the stage of ALPLM’s Union Theater by our Tech Team.

Soundtrack Orchestra:

Randy Irwin, Composer / Arranger

Mary E. Myers, Musical Director
Melissa Blankestyn, Clarinet
Ann W. Collins, Violin
Gina R. Coonrod, French Horn
Karen Frost, Viola
Brian J. Kern, Trombone
Dia R. Langellier, Flute
Chet Lord-Remmert, Cello
Parnelle Miller, Contrabass
Kamen Petkov, Violin
Thomas E. Philbrick, Tuba

Garrett West, Sound Engineer

Gallery Performances

During the run of the exhibit, a string quintet and a flute ensemble performed in the entry of the exhibit

String Quintet:

Ann W. Collins, Violin 
Karen Frost, Viola
Kamen Petkov, Violin
Sharon Lombard, Cello
Parnelle Miller, Contrabass

Flute Ensemble:

Anne Catherine Elshoff
Christina Louisa Spa
Danise J. Keltner
Donna Lerch
Lucinda Garretson
Megan Chrisler
Sally McDaniel-Smith

Exhibit Credits

Curator / Creator:
Christina Shutt, Executive Director

Producer / Project Director:

Lance Tawzer, Director of Exhibits and Shows

Content Development:

Brian Mitchell, PhD - Director of Research and Interpretation
Christian McWhirter, PhD – Lincoln Historian
Jake Friefeld, PhD – Midwest Historian
Transcriptions Provided by Papers of Abraham Lincoln Staff
Additional Content Provided by Gabriella Antonacci,
Katie Brethorst-Stockwell, and Amanda Riggenbach

Design, Fabrication & Installation Team:
Shannon Murphy, Exhibit Design
Amanda Flatt, Graphic Design
Tom Conway, Carpenter Foreman
Kevin Koebler, Carpenter
Dan Casson, Electrician
Tim Antonacci, installation support

Tech / Production Team:
Jeff Nevins, Technical Director
Kurt Williams
Kevin Cline
Garrett West
Wes Abbott
Nick Williams
Additional Interactive development by Craig Williams


Ed MacMurdo, Attractions Coordinator
Reggie Guyton, Narrator
Jeramy Teadrow, Web / IT

Gallery Soundtrack composed by:
Randy Erwin

Loans, Artifact Prep, & Imagery:

Lisa Horsley
Carla Smith
Bonnie Parr
Ginny Lee
Megan Klintworth

Object - Artifact Partners / Lenders:
Amistad Research Center
Barak Obama Foundation
Monica Boutwell
The Church History Museum, Salt Lake City, UT
City of Kewanee
Dana Thomas House, Illinois Department of Natural Resources
The DuSable Black History Museum and Education Center
Fever River Research
Illinois State Archive
Illinois State Library
Illinois State Museum
Illinois Supreme Court
McLean County Historical Society
McWorter Family
Special Collections/Morris Library, Southern Illinois University Carbondale
People for Community Recovery
Ronald Reagan Museum, Eureka College
St. Charles County Historical Society, St. Charles, MO
Tina Turner Museum, West Tennessee Delta Heritage Center
University of Illinois, University Archives & Special Collections

In Their Own Words:
Thank you for sharing your stories
Monica Boutwell
Bryan Crain
Nicole Florence
Bonnie Ho
Patrick Lam
Onyx Montes
Gabriela Ramirez
Mehul Trivedi

Fuller Dymaxion Auto partnership:

Lane Motor Museum, Nashville, TN
Isringhausen Imports, Inc – Support and transportation

Image Credits and Citations:
The Library of Congress
Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.
Delar Studio Rockefeller Center, Smith College Special Collections, Northampton, Massachusetts.
Special Collections/Morris Library, Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Lloyd K Townsend, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
William R. Iseminger, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Directory of Sangamon County’s colored citizens: A history of the Negro in Sangamon County
Sangamon Valley Collection, Lincoln Library
Illinois Historical Survey Collections, University of Illinois, Urbana-Campaign
McWorter Family
Kewanee Historical Society
Chicago Defender July 21, 1951
The People for Community Recovery Archives at the Chicago Public Library
Hanna Holborn Gray Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library
Swarthmore Peace Collection, Swarthmore College
History of Chicago by A.T. Andreas
Chicago Historical Society
Billy Rose Theatre Division, The New York Public Library
Illinois State Historical Society
The Lowney Turner Handy Writers’ Colony Collection, Cunningham Memorial Library, Indiana State University
The Handy Colony Collection, University of Illinois
The DuSable Black History Museum and Education Center
Belvidere Daily Republican
General Research and Reference Division, the New York Public Library
Eureka College
Metro St. Louis Live Music Historical Society
Michael Ochs


The name of the track